*: Denotes co-first or co-senior authorship. Underlined denotes mentored student, postdoc, or K-award mentored faculty at the time of publication. Links to papers will be updated sometime in the future.

COVID-19 Disparities

  • de Ramos IP, Lazo M, Schnake-Mahl A, Li R, Martinez-Donate A, Diez Roux AV, Bilal U. The Disproportionate Impact of COVID-19 Outcomes Among the Hispanic Population of 27 Large US Cities: 2020-2021. American Journal of Public Health 2022. Accepted for Publication

  • Bilal U, Mullachery PH, Schnake-Mahl AS, Rollins H, McCulley E, Kolker J, Barber S, Diez Roux AV. Spatial Inequities in COVID-19 Vaccination in 16 Large US Cities. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2022 Accepted for Publication

  • Bilal U, McCulley EM, Li R, Rollins H, Schnake-Mahl A, Mullachery PH, Vaidya V, Koh C, Dureja K, Sharaf A, Furukawa A, Juliano C, Barber S, Kolker J, Diez Roux AV. Tracking COVID-19 Inequities across jurisdictions represented in the Big Cities Health Coalition: The COVID-19 Health Inequities in BCHC Cities Dashboard. American Journal of Public Health. 2022 Accepted for Publication

  • Bilal U, Jemmott JB, Schnake-Mahl A, Murphy K, Momplaisir F. Racial/ethnic and neighborhood social vulnerability disparities in COVID-19 testing positivity, hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality in a large hospital system in Pennsylvania: a prospective study of electronic health records. The Lancet Regional Health - The Americas. 2022;10:100220

  • Green-McKenzie J, Shofer FS, Momplaisir F, Kuter BJ, Kruse G, Bilal U, Behta M, O'Donnell J, Al-Ramahi N, Kasbekar N, Sullivan P, Okala P, Brenann PJ. Factors Associated With COVID-19 Vaccine Receipt by Health Care Personnel at a Major Academic Hospital During the First Months of Vaccine Availability. JAMA Network Open. 2021 Dec 1;4(12):e2136582.

  • Schnake-Mahl AS, Lazo M, Dureja K, Ehtesham N, Bilal U. Racial and Ethnic Inequities in Occupational Exposure Across and Between US cities. Social Science and Medicine - Population Health 2021;16:1009592

  • Schnake-Mahl AS, Bilal U. Person, Place, Time and COVID-19 Inequities. American Journal of Epidemiology 2021 Aug 1;190(8):1447-1451.

  • Bilal U, Tabb LP, Barber S, Diez Roux AV. Spatial Inequities in COVID-19 Testing, Positivity, Confirmed Cases and Mortality in 3 US Cities: an Ecological Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2021 Jul;174(7):936-944.

  • Bilal U, Alfaro A, Vives A. COVID-19 and the worsening of health inequities in Santiago, Chile. International Journal of Epidemiology 2021 Jul 9;50(3):1038-1040

  • Bilal U. [COVID-19 in the US: inequality as cause and consequence]. Revista de Medicina y Cine, 2020;16(e):105-117

Impacts and Determinants of the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Schnake-Mahl AS, O'Leary G, Mullachery PH, Vaidya V, Connor G, Rollins H, Kolker J, Diez Roux AV, Bilal U. The impact of keeping indoor dining closed on COVID-19 rates among large US cities: a quasi-experimental design. Epidemiology 2022 Mar 1;33(2):200-208.

  • O’Leary G, Schnake-Mahl AS, Vaidya V, Bilal U, Kolker J. Indoor dining and in-person learning: a comparison of 30 US cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021, 18(20), 10967.

  • Martinez-Folgar K, Alburez-Gutierrez D, Paniagua-Avila A, Ramirez-Zea M, Bilal U. Excess Mortality During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Guatemala. American Journal of Public Health. 2021 Sep 23;e1-e8. doi:

  • Kephart JL, Delclos-Alio X, Sarmiento OL, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Ramirez-Zea M, Quistberg DA, Rodriguez DA, Bilal U*, Diez Roux AV. The impact of population mobility on COVID-19 incidence in 314 Latin American cities: a longitudinal ecological study. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021 Aug 26:S2589-7500(21)00174-6.

  • Glodeanu A, Gullón P, Bilal U. Social Inequalities in Mobility During and Following the COVID-19 associated lockdown of the Madrid Metropolitan Area in Spain. Health and Place 2021 Jul;70:102580.

  • Glodeanu A, Gullón P, Bilal U. [Our experience using mobility data to detect inequalities during the COVID-19 pandemic]. Gaceta Sanitaria 2021 Jun 3:S0213-9111(21)00105-9

  • Trias-Llimos S, Bilal U, Franco M, Blanes A, Riffe T. [Declines in life expectancy in 2020 and SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence]. Gaceta Sanitaria 2021 Jul 28:S0213-9111(21)00139-4.

  • Bilal U, Gullón P, Padilla-Bernáldez J. [Epidemiologic evidence on the role of hospitality venues in the transmission of COVID-19: a rapid review of the literature]. Gaceta Sanitaria 2021 Apr 8:S0213-9111(21)00075-3

  • Calderón-Aynosa R, Bilal U, Kaufman JS. Variation in non-external and external causes of death in Peru in relation to the COVID-19 Lockdown. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 2021 Mar 31;94(1):23-40.

  • Kephart JL, Avila-Palencia I, Bilal U, Gouveia N, Caiaffa WT, Diez Roux AV. COVID-19, ambient air pollution, and environmental health inequities in Latin American cities. Journal of Urban Health 2021 Jun;98(3):428-432.

  • Bilal U. [The dynamics of contagion in cities]. Revista Panorama Social FUNCAS, 2020 Dec;(32):77-94

  • Trias-Llimos S, Riffe T, Bilal U. Monitoring life expectancy levels during the COVID-19 pandemic: Example of the unequal impact of the first wave on Spanish regions. PLoS One. 2020 Nov 5;15(11):e0241952.

  • Trias-Llimos S, Bilal U. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on life expectancy in Madrid (Spain). Journal of Public Health, 2020;42(3):635-636.

Health Across the Continuum of Urbanization

  • McCulley EM, Mullachery PH, Ortigoza AF, Rodriguez DA, Diez Roux AV, Bilal U. Urban Scaling of Health Outcomes: a scoping review. Journal of Urban Health 2022. Accepted for Publication

  • Mullachery PH, Lankenau S, Diez Roux AV, Li R, Henson RM, Bilal U. Urban scaling of opioid overdose deaths in the United States: a cross-sectional study in three periods between 2005 and 2017. BMJ Open 2022;12:e048831.

  • Bilal U, de Castro CP, Alfaro T, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Barreto ML, Leveau C, Martinez-Folgar K, Miranda JJ, Montes F, Mullachery PH, Pina MF, Rodriguez DA, dos Santos GF, Andrade RFS, Diez Roux AV. Scaling of Mortality in 742 Metropolitan Areas of the Americas. Science Advances 2021 Dec 10;7(50):eabl6325.

  • Mullachery PH, Bilal U. Urban scaling of opioid analgesic sales in the United States. PLoS One. 2021 Oct 12;16(10):e0258526.

  • Quistberg DA, Hessel P, Rodriguez DA, Sarmiento OL, Bilal U, Caiaffa WT, Miranda JJ, Pina MF, Hernandez-Vasquez AA, Diez Roux AV. Urban Landscape and Street Design Factors Associated with Road Traffic Mortality: A study of 328,408 road traffic deaths in 366 Latin American Cities: an Ecological Study. The Lancet Planetary Health 2022;6:e122-31

  • Sarmiento OL, Useche AF, Rodriguez DA, Dronova I, Guaje O, Montes F, Stankov I, Wilches MA, Bilal U, Wang X, Guzman LA, Peña F, Quistberg DA, Guerra-Gomez JA, Diez Roux AV. Built Environment Profiles for Latin American Urban Settings: The SALURBAL study. PLoS ONE 2021, 16(10):e0257528

  • Mullachery PH, Rodriguez DA, Miranda JJ, Lopez-Olmedo N, Martinez-Folgar K, Barreto ML, Diez Roux AV, Bilal U. Mortality amenable to healthcare in Latin American cities: a cross-sectional study examining between-country variation in amenable mortality and the role of urban metrics. International Journal of Epidemiology 2021 Aug 2:dyab137.

  • Bilal U, Hessel P, Perez-Ferrer C, Michael YL, Alfaro T, Tenorio-Mucha J, de Friche AAL, Pina MF, Vives A, Quick H, Alazraqui M, Rodriguez DA, Miranda JJ, Diez-Roux AV, and the SALURBAL group. Life expectancy and mortality in 363 cities of Latin America. Nature Medicine 2021 Mar;27(3):463-470

  • McCulley EM, Mullachery P, Rodriguez D, Diez-Roux AV, Bilal U. Urban Scaling of Health Outcomes: a protocol for a scoping review. BMJ Open 2019; 9 (11), e031176

Health Inequalities

  • Koh C, Kondo M, Rollins H, Bilal U. Socioeconomic Disparities in Hypertension by Levels of Green Space Availability: A Cross-Sectional Study in Philadelphia, PA. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19(4), 2037

  • Vela E, Cleries M, Bilal U, Banach M, McEvoy JW, Mortensen MB, Blaha MJ, Nasir K, Comin-Colet J, Mauri J, Cainzos-Achirica M. Implications of the 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Risk Classification among 283,000 European Immigrants Living in a Low-Risk Region: A Population-Based Analysis in Catalonia. Archives of Medical Science 2021. In Press

  • Moran MR, Bilal U*, Dronova I, Ju Y, Gouveia N, Caiaffa WT, de Lima Friche AA, Moore K, Miranda JJ, Rodriguez DA. The equigenic effect of greenness on the association between education with life expectancy and mortality in 28 large Latin American cities. Health and Place 2021 Nov;72:102703

  • Rodriguez S, Bilal U, Ortigoza A, Diez Roux AV. Educational inequalities, urbanicity and levels of non-communicable diseases risk factors: Evaluating trends in Argentina (2005-2013). BMC Public Health. 2021 Aug 20;21(1):1572.

  • Tumas N, Rodriguez S, Bilal U, Ortigoza A, Diez Roux AV. Urban social determinants of non-communicable diseases risk factors in Argentina. Health and Place 2021 Jun 29:102611.

  • Satish P, Vela E, Bilal U, Cleries M, Kanaya AM, Kandula N, Virani SS, Islam N, Valero-Elizondo J, Yahya T, Comin-Colet J, Nasir K, Mauri J, Cainzos-Achirica M. Burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease in five Asian groups in Catalonia: a disaggregated, population-based analysis of 121 000 first-generation Asian immigrants. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 May 10;zwab074.

  • Mullachery PH, Bilal U. The Social Cross-Over in Cardiovascular Disease: Context Matters. Heart 2021 May;107(10):778-780.

  • Guadamuz JS, Kapoor K, Lazo M, Eleazar A, Yahya T, Kanaya AM, Cainzos-Achirica M, Bilal U. Understanding Immigration as a Social Determinant of Health: Cardiovascular Disease in Hispanics/Latinos and South Asians in the United States. Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 2021 Mar 27;23(6):25.

  • Gullon P, Bilal U, Hirsch JA, Rundle A, Judd S, Safford M, Lovasi GS. Does a physical activity supportive environment ameliorate or exacerbate socioeconomic inequities in incident coronary heart disease?. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2020 Dec 14:jech-2020-215239

  • Gullon P, Diez J, Cainzos-Achirica M, Franco M, Bilal U. Social Inequities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in women and men by Autonomous Regions in Spain. Gaceta Sanitaria 2020 Jul 13:S0213-9111(20)30117-5.

  • Bilal U, Diez-Roux AV, Alazraqui M, Caiaffa WT, Lopez-Olmedo N, Martinez-Folgar K, Miranda JJ, Rodriguez DA, Vives A. Life expectancy inequalities within six large Latin American cities in the SALURBAL study: an ecological analysis. The Lancet Planetary Health 2019; 3 (12), e503-e510

  • Bilal U, Cainzos-Achirica M*, Cleries M, Santaeugenia S, Corbella X, Comin-Colet J, Vela E. Socioeconomic Status, Life Expectancy and Mortality in a Universal Healthcare Setting: An Individual-Level Analysis of More Than 6 Million Catalan Residents. Preventive Medicine 2019 Jun;123:91-94

  • Cainzos-Achirica M, Vela E, Cleries M, Bilal U, Mauri J, Pueyo MJ, Rosas A, Blaha MJ, Kanaya AM, Enjuanes C, Garcia-Eroles L, Comin-Coilet J. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease among Non-European Immigrants Living in Catalonia. Heart 2019 Aug;105(15):1168-1174.

  • Cainzos-Achirica M, Capdevila C, Vela E, Cleries M, Bilal U, Garcia-Altes A, Enjuanes C, Garay A, Yun S, Farre N, Corbella X, Comin-Colet J. Individual Income, Mortality and Healthcare Resource Use in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure Living in a Universal Healthcare System: A Population-Based Study in Catalonia, Spain. Int J Cardiol. 2019 Feb 15;277:250-257

  • Bilal U, Diez-Roux AV. Troubling Trends in Health Disparities. New England Journal of Medicine. 2018 Apr 19;378(16):1557-1558.

  • Bilal U, Hill-Brigs F, Sanchez-Perruca L, del Cura I, Franco M. Association of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Diabetes Burden using Electronic Health Records in Madrid (Spain): The Heart Healthy Hoods Study. BMJ Open. 2018;8:e021143.

  • Lazo M, Bilal U*, Perez-Escamilla R. Epidemiology of NAFLD and Type 2 Diabetes: Health Disparities Among Persons of Hispanic Origin. Current Diabetes Reports. 2015 Dec;15(12):116

Neighborhood Dynamics

Food Environment

Other Neighborhood Factors

Macrosocial change

Clinical and Social Determinants of Smoking

Clinical and Social Determinants of Alcohol Consumption

Cardiovascular Prevention


Other Editorials and Correspondence